SAP Interview Questions and Answers
1) What is ERP?
Ans: ERP is a package with the techniques and concepts for the integrated management of business as a whole, for effective use of management resources, to improve the efficiency of an enterprise. Initially, ERP was targeted for manufacturing industry mainly for planning and managing core business like production and financial market. As the growth and merits of ERP package ERP software is designed for basic process of a company from manufacturing to small shops with a target of integrating information across the company.
2) Different types of ERP?
Ans: SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. Among all the ERP’s most of the companies implemented or trying to implement SAP because of number of advantages aver other ERP packages.
3) What is SAP?
Ans: SAP is the name of the company founded in 1972 under the German name (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is the leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software package.
4) Explain the concept of “Business Content” in SAP Business Information Warehouse?
Ans: Business Content is a pre-configured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need to carry out their tasks.
These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources, InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, mySAP.com Business Applications and other selected applications.
5) Why do you usually choose to implement SAP?
Ans: There are number of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It’s highly configurable, highly secure data handling, min data redundancy, max data consistency, you can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing, tight integration-cross function.
6) Can BW run without a SAP R/3 implementation?
Ans: Certainly. You can run BW without R/3 implementation. You can use pre-defined business content in BW using your non-SAP data.
Here you simply need to map the transfer structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL products such as Acta, Infomatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.
7) What is IDES?
Ans: International Demonstration and Education System. A sample application provided for faster learning and implementation.
8) What is WF and its importance?
Ans: Business Work Flow :Tool for automatic control and execution of cross-application processes.This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs involved in managing business processes.Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.
9) What is SAP R/3?
Ans: A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that performs common business function based on multinational leading practice. Takes care of any enterprise however diverse in operation, spread over the world. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are located at different system.
10) What are presentation, application and database servers in SAP R/3?
Ans: The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized server. This server is called database server.
11) What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?
Ans: Convert the legacy system data to a flat file and convert flat file into internal table. Transfer the flat file into sap system called “sap data transfer”. Call transaction(Write the program explicitly) or create sessions (sessions are created and processed ,if success data will transfer).
12) Explain open SQL vs native SQL?
Ans: ABAP Native SQL allows you to include database-specific SQL statements in an ABAP program. Most ABAP programs containing database-specific SQL statements do not run with different databases. If different databases are involved, use Open SQL.
To execute ABAP Native SQL in an ABAP program, use the statement EXEC. Open SQL (Subset of standard SQL statements), allows you to access all database tables available in the R/3 System, regardless of the manufacturer.
To avoid conflicts between database tables and to keep ABAP programs independent from the database system used, SAP has generated its own set of SQL statements known as Open SQL.
13) What are datasets?
Ans: The sequential files (processed on application server) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.
14) What are internal tables check table, value table, and transparent table?
Ans: Internal table: It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program.
Check table: Check table will be at field level checking. Value table: Value table will be at domain level checking
Ex: scarr table is check table for carrid.
Transparent table: Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields.
15) What are the major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3?
Ans: Would it be sufficient just to Web-enable R/3 Reports? – Performance – Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end, quarter end, or year end – now imagine that occurring even more frequently.
Data analysis – BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.
16) How can an ERP such as SAP help a business owner learn more about how business operates?
Ans: In order to use an ERP system, A business person must understand the business processes and how they work together from one functional area to the other. This knowledge gives the student a much deeper understanding of how a business operates. Using SAP as a tool to learn about ERP systems will require that the people understand the business processes and how they integrate.
17) What is the difference between OLAP and Data Mining?
Ans: OLAP : On line Analytical processing is a reporting tool configured to understand your database schema ,composition facts and dimensions. By simple point-n-clicking, a user can run any number of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the schema.
Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine “builds” and executes the appropriate SQL.
Mining is to build the application to specifically look at detailed analyses, often algorithmic; even more often misappropriate called “reporting.
18) What is “Extended Star Schema” and how did it emerge?
Ans: The Star Schema consists of the Dimension Tables and the Fact Table. The Master Data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the characteristics in the dimension table(s). These separate tables for master data is termed as the Extended Star Schema.
19) Define Meta data, Master data and Transaction data
Ans: Meta Data: Data that describes the structure of data or MetaObjects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data.
Master Data: Master data is data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW. With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or hierarchies.
Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.
20) Name some drawbacks of SAP
Ans: Interfaces are huge problem, Determine where master data resides, Expensive, very complex, demands highly trained staff, lengthy implementation time.
21) What is Bex?
Ans: Bex stands for Business Explorer. Bex enables end user to locate reports, view reports, analyze information and can execute queries. The queries in workbook can be saved to there respective roles in the Bex browser.
Bex has the following components:
- Bex Browser
- Bex analyzer
- Bex Map
- Bex Web
22) What are variables?
Ans: Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter query definition and are not filled with values until the queries are inserted into workbooks. There are different types of variables which are used in different application: Characteristics variables, Hierarchies and hierarchy node, Texts, Formulas, Processing types, User entry/Default type, Replacment Path.
23) What is AWB?. What is its purpose?
Ans: AWB stands for Administrator WorkBench. AWB is a tool for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information whearhousing.
24) What is the significance of ODS in BIW?
Ans: An ODS Object serves to store consolidated and debugged transaction data on a document level (atomic level). It describes a consolidated dataset from one or more InfoSources. This dataset can be analyzed with a BEx Query or InfoSet Query. The data of an ODS Object can be updated with a delta update into InfoCubes and/or other ODS Objects in the same system or across systems. In contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS Objects is stored in transparent, flat database tables.
25) What are the different types of source system?
- SAP R/3 Source Systems
- SAP BW
- Flat Files
- External Systems.
26) What is Extractor?
Ans: Extractors is a data retrieval mechanisms in the SAP source system. Which can fill the extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets. The extractor may be able to supply data to more fields than exist in the extract structure.
27) What is an ABAP data dictionary?
Ans: ABAP 4 data dictionary describes the logical structures of the objects used in application development and shows how they are mapped to the underlying relational database in tables/views.
28) What are domains and data element?
Ans: Domains: Domain is the central object for describing the technical characteristics of an attribute of an business objects. It describes the value range of the field.
Data Element: It is used to describe the semantic definition of the table fields like description the field. Data element describes how a field can be displayed to end-user.
29) What is foreign key relationship?
Ans: A relationship which can be defined between tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Foreign keys are used to ensure the consistency of data. Data entered should be checked against existing data to ensure that there are now contradiction. While defining foreign key relationship cardinality has to be specified. Cardinality mentions how many dependent records or how referenced records are possible.
30) Describe data classes.
Ans: Master data: It is the data which is seldomly changed.
Transaction data: It is the data which is often changed.
Organization data: It is a customizing data which is entered in the system when the system is configured and is then rarely changed.
System data: It is the data which R/3 system needs for itself.
31) What are indexes?
Ans: Indexes are described as a copy of a database table reduced to specific fields. This data exists in sorted form. This sorting form ease fast access to the field of the tables. In order that other fields are also read, a pointer to the associated record of the actual table are included in the index. Yhe indexes are activated along with the table and are created automatically with it in the database.
32) Difference between transparent tables and pooled tables.
Ans: Transparent tables: Transparent tables in the dictionary has a one-to-one relation with the table in database. Its structure corresponds to single database field. Table in the database has the same name as in the dictionary. Transparent table holds application data.
Pooled tables: Pooled tables in the dictionary has a many-to-one relation with the table in database. Table in the database has the different name as in the dictionary. Pooled table are stored in table pool at the database level.
33) What is an ABAP/4 Query?
Ans: ABAP/4 Query is a powerful tool to generate simple reports without any coding. ABAP/4 Query can generate the following 3 simple reports:
Basic List: It is the simple reports.
Statistics: Reports with statistical functions like Average, Percentages.
Ranked Lists: For analytical reports.
For creating a ABAP/4 Query, programmer has to create user group and a functional group. Functional group can be created using with or without logical database table. Finally, assign user group to functional group. Finally, create a query on the functional group generated.
34) What is BDC programming?
Ans: Transferring of large/external/legacy data into SAP system using Batch Input programming. Batch input is a automatic procedure referred to as BDC(Batch Data Communications).The central component of the transfer is a queue file which receives the data vie a batch input programs and groups associated data into “sessions”.
35) What are the functional modules used in sequence in BDC?
Ans: These are the 3 functional modules which are used in a sequence to perform a data transfer successfully using BDC programming:
BDC_OPEN_GROUP : Parameters like Name of the client, sessions and user name are specified in this functional modules.
BDC_INSERT : It is used to insert the data for one transaction into a session.
BDC_CLOSE_GROUP :This is used to close the batch input session.
36) What are internal tables?
Ans: Internal tables are a standard data type object which exists only during the runtime of the program. They are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for re-organising the contents of database tables according to users need.
37) What is ITS? What are the merits of ITS?
Ans: ITS is a Internet Transaction Server. ITS forms an interface between HTTP server and R/3 system, which converts screen provided data by the R/3 system into HTML documents and vice-versa.
Merits of ITS: A complete web transaction can be developed and tested in R/3 system. All transaction components, including those used by the ITS outside the R/3 system at runtime, can be stored in the R/3 system. The advantage of automatic language processing in the R/3 system can be utilized to language-dependent HTML documents at runtime.
38) What is DynPro?
Ans: DynPro is a Dynamic Programming which is a combination of screen and the associated flow logic Screen is also called as DynPro.
39) What are screen painter and menu painter?
Ans: Screen painter: Screen painter is a tool to design and maintain screen and its elements. It allows user to create GUI screens for the transactions. Attributes, layout, filed attributes and flow logic are the elements of Screen painter.
Menu painter: Menu painter is a tool to design the interface components. Status, menu bars, menu lists, F-key settings, functions and titles are the components of Menu painters. Screen painter and menu painter both are the graphical interface of an ABAP/4 applications.
40) What are the components of SAP scripts?
Ans: SAP scripts is a word processing tool of SAP which has the following components: Standard text. It is like a standard normal documents.
Layout sets: Layout set consists of the following components: Windows and pages, Paragraph formats, Character formats. Creating forms in the R/3 system. Every layout set consists of Header, paragraph, and character string. ABAP/4 program.
41) What is ALV programming in ABAP? When is this grid used in ABAP?
Ans: ALV is Application List viewer. Sap provides a set of ALV (ABAP LIST VIEWER) function modules which can be put into use to embellish the output of a report. This set of ALV functions is used to enhance the readability and functionality of any report output. Cases arise in sap when the output of a report contains columns extending more than 255 characters in length.
In such cases, this set of ALV functions can help choose selected columns and arrange the different columns from a report output and also save different variants for report display. This is a very efficient tool for dynamically sorting and arranging the columns from a report output. The report output can contain up to 90 columns in the display with the wide array of display options.
42) What are the events in ABAP/4 language?
Ans: Initialization, At selection-screen, Start-of-selection, end-of-selection, top-of-page, end-of-page, At line-selection, At user-command, At PF, Get, At New, At LAST, AT END, AT FIRST.
43) What is CTS and what do you know about it?
Ans: The Change and Transport System (CTS) is a tool that helps you to organize development projects in the ABAP Workbench and in Customizing, and then transport the changes between the SAP Systems and clients in your system landscape. This documentation provides you with an overview of how to manage changes with the CTS and essential information on setting up your system and client landscape and deciding on a transport strategy. Read and follow this documentation when planning your development project.
44) What are logical databases? What are the advantages/ dis-advantages of logical databases?
Ans: To read data from a database tables we use logical database. A logical database provides read-only access to a group of related tables to an ABAP/4 program.
i) check functions which check that user input is complete, correct,and plausible.
ii) Meaningful data selection.
iii) central authorization checks for database accesses.
iv) good read access performance while retaining the hierarchical data view determined by the application logic.
i) If you donot specify a logical database in the program attributes,the GET events never occur.
ii) There is no ENDGET command,so the code block associated with an event ends with the next event statement (such as another GET or an END-OF-SELECTION).
45) What is a batch input session?
Ans: BATCH INPUT SESSION is an intermediate step between internal table and database table. Data along with the action is stored in session ie data for screen fields, to which screen it is passed, program name behind it, and how next screen is processed.
46) How to upload data using CATT?
Ans: These are the steps to be followed to Upload data through CATT:
- Creation of the CATT test case & recording the sample data input.
- Download of the source file template.
- Modification of the source file.
- Upload of the data from the source file.
47) What is Smart Forms?
Ans: Smart Forms allows you to create forms using a graphical design tool with robust functionality, color, and more. Additionally, all new forms developed at SAP will be created with the new Smart Form solution.
48) How can I make a differentiation between dependent and independent data?
Ans: Client dependent or independent transfer requirements include client specific or cross client objects in the change requests. Workbench objects like SAPscripts are client specific, some entries in customizing are client independent. If you display the object list for one change request, and then for each object the object attributes, you will find the flag client specific. If one object in the task list has this flag on, then that transport will be client dependent.
49) What is the difference between macro and subroutine?
Ans: Macros can only be used in the program the are defined in and only after the definition are expanded at compilation / generation.
Subroutines (FORM) can be called from both the program the are defined in and other programs .
A MACRO is more or less an abbreviation for some lines of code that are used more than once or twice.
A FORM is a local subroutine (which can be called external).
A FUNCTION is (more or less) a subroutine that is called external. Since debugging a MACRO is not really possible, prevent the use of them (I’ve never used them, but seen them in action). If the subroutine is used only local (called internal) use a FORM. If the subroutine is called external (used by more than one program) use a FUNCTION.
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